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🧘‍♂️ Learn to Meditate

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Landon Mitchell
Landon Mitchell

1 : One Shot

One shot is amazing!! Their coffees are delicious and the non-dairy options are great. I had oat milk latte- it was made very well. Their vegan/gluten free peanut butter dessert was sooo good! The staff is very sweet and care about how everything comes out. It was a great experience and very inviting. :) I enjoyed relaxing and journaling.

1 : One Shot

The Captain and his council help Douglas Kessler dispatch the Red Feathers but after the fighting ends tension begins to ramp up. Hip is seriously injured and without immediate attention, he could die. The Uhuru is without a doctor and everyone must scramble to make do. CONTENT NOTE Gunshot wound, blood, field surgery, stitches, body...

Eligibility criteria for one-shots is not advertised, as they are evaluated on a case-by-base basis, but generally there must be a reason that has prevented you from paying the unexpected expense and you must be able to show how you will pay the expense moving forward.

Most one-shot deals will have to be paid back gradually through regular monthly payments, though this is generally not the case if you are receiving SSI disability benefits. When applying for a one-shot deal it is helpful to have all the documentation that may be required ready. A list of some of the documents that may be requested is below.

It is important to keep copies of any paperwork that you give to HRA and to keep notes on all your visits. You can be approved for a one-shot deal even if you have gotten one in the past, but when you got it and whether or not you have been trying to pay it back can influence whether another request will be approved.

The aim of the present study is to test a novel computational framework that can account for when and how one-shot learning occurs over and above incremental learning, as well as to gain insight into how the brain is capable of implementing the switch between these different learning strategies. Our computational hypothesis is that the rates at which individuals learn to causally associate a stimulus with an outcome increases with the extent to which the relative amount of uncertainty in the causal relationship between that stimulus and outcome are left unresolved. Specifically, the more uncertainty there is about the causal relationship between a stimulus and an outcome, the higher the learning rate that is assigned to that stimulus in order to resolve the uncertainty. Stimulus-outcome pairs with very high uncertainty associated with them should elicit very rapid one-shot learning.

The design of our task was structured so as to enable us to distinguish between incremental and one-shot learning. The task is designed, as will be described below, to enable us to test whether one-shot learning occurs when the amount of uncertainty in the causal relationship between a stimulus and an outcome is greater than that of other stimulus-outcome pairs.

As expected, we found that a majority of participants rated the novel stimulus as the most probable cause of the novel outcome in the type2 round, as opposed to the type1 round (Fig 3; p

Our causal uncertainty model and the heuristic causal judgment mechanism could both equally well account for the behavioral results reported above. To further distinguish the predictions of these models, we attempted to demonstrate that our causal uncertainty model makes additional predictions about the causal ratings above and beyond the distinction made by the novelty of the stimulus-outcome pair. To do this, we created event categories by stratifying stimulus events by the learning rates predicted by our causal uncertainty model: one-shot learning events (OS) are defined as a collection of discrete stimulus events during which the learning rate of the model is greater than the 90th percentile, while the remaining events are deemed to correspond to incremental learning events (IC) (see Fig 4A and Materials and Methods for more details); our independent model-based analysis indicated that the 90th percentile threshold is a viable predictor for distinguishing between one-shot learning and incremental learning (see S3 Fig for full details, including the rationale for the choice of the 90th percentile cut off). Second, we defined a one-shot learning round (OS round) as a round during which the model predicts occurrence of OS (see the right of Fig 4A) and the incremental learning round (IC round) as a round during which the model predicts no occurrence of OS (see the left of Fig 4A). It is important to note that the type1 rounds do not necessarily overlap with the IC rounds nor do the type2 rounds overlap with the OS rounds (see S4 Fig for more details).

In the type1 round during which a novel cue is paired with a non-novel outcome, the one-shot effect index (the causal rating for the novel cue minus the average causal ratings for the non-novel cues) for the OS rounds is more negative than for the IC rounds (see the left of Fig 4B; paired-sample t test, p

To determine which brain regions are engaged on events during which the model predicts the participant will implement one-shot learning, we ran a categorical analysis between event types (Fig 5B). A significantly increased neural activation was found in multiple areas including hippocampus as well as fusiform gyrus (p

To further test our neural hypothesis about the role of hippocampus during OS, we subsequently ran an ROI analysis using an anatomically defined hippocampus mask [54]. The mean percent signal change, which quantifies how much the evoked BOLD response deviates from its voxel-wise baseline, was computed within the hippocampus ROI across all subjects. We found a significant increase in neural activity during OS but not during IC (paired-sample t test p

In order to further characterize how the vlPFC, the region we found to most prominently encode causal uncertainty, interacts with the hippocampus during one-shot learning, we also ran a connectivity analysis (see Materials and Methods for technical details). We computed correlations between the neural signals in vlPFC and hippocampus for different learning rates and found that functional coupling between the vlPFC and the hippocampus was high during very high learning rates but not during learning rates associated with more incremental learning (Fig 6). Both the patterns of the vlPFC activation described above and of the connectivity results presented here indicate that the vlPFC may selectively interact with the hippocampus particularly under circumstances in which one-shot learning is warranted. This finding supports the possibility that the vlPFC may effectively operate as a switch to turn on the hippocampus when it is needed during one-shot learning situations and, furthermore, leads us to understand the nature of the activity in hippocampus during one-shot learning, i.e., that the hippocampus encodes causal uncertainty signal only during high learning rate events. 041b061a72


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